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城市空气质量问题调查分析 
发布时间:2019-03-26

  应用统计硕士论文第六篇:城市空气质量问题调查分析

     本篇文章目录导航:  
  【题目】城市空气质量问题调查分析  
  【绪论】影响城市空气质量的因素研究绪论  
  【第一章】中国空气质量概念界定及其影响因素分析  
  【第二章】中国城市空气质量及相关要素的统计分析  
  【第三章-第四章】中国城市空气质量影响因素的计量分析  
  【第五章-参考文献】我国城区空气状况及关联因素研究结论与参考文献

    摘要

  随着我国社会经济的高速发展,进一步加快了我国城镇化、工业化的步伐,随之而来的污染物的排放量也在迅猛增加,严重影响了我国的空气质量问题,并导致其进一步恶化。我国经济结构转型中最大的问题之一就是如何有效的改善大气环境,降低各污染气体的排放量,以建设可持续发展的友好型社会。目前,我国对煤炭的需求极大,煤炭的生产以及消耗巨大,资源能源的分布受地域的限制。此外,我国还面临着区域之间经济发展不平衡的问题,各个区域为吸引外商投资,加快本地区经济的发展,降低了对环境的重视程度,将一些对本区域环境造成不利影响的企业引入,虽然对当地经济的发展起到了很大的作用,但是同时对环境的污染恶化也造成了严重的后果和影响??焖俜⒄沟木锰逋币苍斐闪四茉聪脑黾?、废气排放量的大幅上升,这严重影响了我国节能减排、绿色和谐发展的目标的实现。与此同时,在我国经济的飞速发展下,我国主要污染物排放,例如硫化物、碳氧化物、氮氧化物以及烟粉尘排放量等等仍处于居高不下的位置,要实现废气排放总量的减少与环境质量的改善,使得任务更趋艰巨复杂。本文在此背景之下,从科学的角度探究我国空气质量与降水量、相对湿度、温度、废气排放量、绿化面积以及年末实有公共( 汽) 电车营运车辆数的关系,分析我国空气质量的影响因素,能够使得我国区域之间产业结构进行合理化调整,以实现经济与环境?;は嘈鞯姆⒄鼓J?。
  
  文章以变系数面板数据模型为基础,在众多学者相应的研究经验上,从相对湿度 HR,降水量 PA,温度 T,绿化面积 GAR,年末实有公共( 汽) 电车营运车辆数 N,废气排放量 ET 等角度,分为自然因素和人为因素两个方面来考察我国 2006-2016年降水量、相对湿度、温度和绿化面积、废气排放量以及年末实有公共( 汽) 电车营运车辆数等各个影响因素对我国城市空气质量的空间动态特性,主要目的是运用面板数据对空气质量地区性差异进行估计分析,文章首先介绍了研究背景与意义,还有本文所运用的方法与研究内容,其次简要介绍了文章所涉及到的概念还有就是文章中所运用的各个指标,并对基本的概念进行了界定,之后,对我国城市空气质量的现行状况进行了现状分析,从时间和空间两个维度阐释了我国城市空气质量的相关特征,以及各影响因素指标的现状特征;之后,是城市空气质量的代理指标与各因素之间的实证分析。从人为影响因素以及自然影响因素两个角度进行了实证分析,首先详细的说明本文选取的变量指标和数据来源,其次,着重进行模型的识别与分析,构建空气质量好于二级的天数与降水量、相对湿度、温度、废气排放量、年末实有公共( 汽) 电车营运车辆数、以及绿化面积的相关模型,在利用各种检验的基础上,最后得出有关模型的相关的关系情况,具体有以下的各方面:
  
 ?。?)通过对我国城市空气质量动态的研究,在进行一系列的的单位根检验、Kao 协整检验、豪斯曼 Hausman 检验以及 F 统计量检验之后,在 5%的显着性水平下,检验统计量落入拒绝域之内,应该同时拒绝 H01和 H02的假设,所以应选择变系数模型。并且还得出,对于拟合优度的大小来说,滞后一阶模型是最大的。此外,对于本文选取的时期数小于地区截面个数的面板数据来说,本文选取变系数模型能更好的对我国城市空气质量的特征进行相应的研究分析。而且变系数模型的相应的检验统计量J统计量值为 30.12,检验统计量的值大于临界值,落入拒绝域之内,则认为拒绝原假设,这很好地说明了对于分析研究我国城市空气质量的影响因素时,很适合考虑滞后因素的模型。
  
 ?。?)我国各省份无论是废气排放量,年末实有公共( 汽) 电车营运车辆数,绿化面积人为因素还是降水量,相对湿度,温度自然影响因素对空气质量好于二级的天数为空气质量好坏的代理指标有不同程度的影响,此外,废气排放量,年末实有公共( 汽) 电车营运车辆数,绿化面积人为影响因素以及降水量,相对湿度,温度自然影响因素分别与空气质量好于二级的天数为空气质量好坏的代理指标之间存在长期均衡关系。
  
 ?。?)从解释变量的系数jtb这一角度来看,不同的因素对各个省份空气质量的影响程度大小是不同的,而且,不同的影响因素在各个时期对空气质量的影响程度大小也是不同的。
  
  关键词:空气质量 影响因素 面板模型。

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  ABSTRACT.

  
  With the rapid development of our society and economy, the process of urbanization,industrialization, China's emissions of pollutants are rapidly raised, this furtherdeterioration in air quality problems. Improving air quality, reducing pollution emissionsin the atmosphere, establish economic and environment friendly society has become amajor problem in the process of transformation and upgrading of our country's economy.
  
  Our country is a coal-fired power, coal production and consumption is huge, unevendistribution of resources, energy, mining technology utilization level is low, the parts ofour country energy denudation, use resources inefficiently. In addition, China also faces aprovincial regional unbalanced economic development between the problem, in differentregions to attract foreign investment, speed up the development of regional economy,caused by foreign direct investment threshold is too low, some region environmentadversely affect enterprise introduction, while speeding up the pace of the local economydevelopment, but further deterioration of the atmospheric environment has also causedserious negative effect.The rapidly developing economy also contributes to the increaseof energy consumption and emission, which seriously affects the realization of China'sgoal of energy conservation, emission reduction and green harmonious development. Atthe same time. In the process of economic development, our country some of the majorpollutants such as sulfur dioxide emissions, Yan Fen Chen emissions, emissions of carbonmonoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions are still in a higher position, to achieve thereduction of exhaust emissions and the improvement of environmental quality, makes thetask more difficult and complex. Under this background, this article from the perspectiveof scientific inquiry in our air quality and precipitation, relative humidity, temperatureand exhaust emissions, green area, and at the end of the actual public (steam) trolleyoperating vehicle number, analysis the influence factors of air quality in our country, toadjust the regional industrial structure and achieve coordinated economic developmentand environmental protection is of great importance.
  
  In reference on the basis of relevant research experience, this paper intends to usethe traditional variable coefficient panel data model, PA from precipitation, relativehumidity, HR, temperature T and green area GAR, emissions ET, at the end of the actualvehicle number N public (steam) tram operation point of view, is divided into twoaspects of natural factors and human factors to examine our country 2006-2016,precipitation, relative humidity, temperature and green area, emissions, and at the end ofthe actual public (steam) trolley operating vehicle number each influence factors such asspatial dynamic characteristics of the urban air quality, the main purpose is to use a paneldata estimation analysis difference of urban air quality, this article first introduces theresearch background, research significance and research method and research content ofthis article, then briefly introduces the related concepts mentioned in the article andarticle using the influence factors of indicators, and the basic concept was defined, then,the current situation of urban air quality in China the status quo analysis, from twoaspects of time and space analysis of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the urbanair quality in China, as well as the present situation of the various factors affecting thecharacteristic; Then the empirical analysis is made on the air quality and its influencingfactors in China. From human factors and natural factors two aspects has carried on theempirical analysis, first of all details in this paper, the selection of variables and datasources, and second, focus on model identification and analysis of the construction of airquality is better than 2 days and precipitation, relative humidity, temperature, exhaustemissions, at the end of the actual number of vehicles, public (steam) tram operation aswell as the related model of green area, on the basis of using the correlation test, finallydraw a panel data model related situation, the relationship between specific have thefollowing several aspects:
  
 ?。?) through the research of the urban air quality dynamic, in a series of unit root test,Kao co-integration test, hausmann Hausman test and F statistic test, should be under 5%significance level to assume h01-2 and H02, so should choose variable coefficient model.
  
  Moreover, the optimal degree of goodness of fit is the largest. In addition, for the purposeof this article to determine the number of times smaller than the area of section numberof panel data, this article selects point variable coefficient model can better the dynamiccharacteristics of the urban air quality for the corresponding research. And variablecoefficient model of the statistical value of 30.12 J, corresponding confidence level isgreater than the critical value, reject exists in recognition of the original assumption, andis effective for instrumental variable Settings, this explains well considering lag factorsmodel can better explain the influence factors of the urban air quality research.
  
 ?。?) the provinces in our country whether emissions, at the end of the actual public(steam) trolley operating vehicle number, green area human factors or precipitation,relative humidity, temperature natural factors that affect on the air quality is better than 2days for air agent of quality indicators have different degrees of influence, in addition,the exhaust emissions, at the end of the actual public (steam) trolley operating vehiclenumber, green area and man-made influence precipitation, relative humidity, temperaturenatural factors, respectively, and the air quality is better than 2 days for air quality thereis a long-term equilibrium relationship between proxy index.
  
 ?。?) It can be seen from the value of each period that the value of each year has agreat influence on the value of the next year, which is in line with the practicalsignificance. Explain it from the variable coefficient of this perspective, the air quality ofdifferent factors on the provinces the influence degree of the size is different, and theinfluence factors of different size in each period to the influence degree of the air qualityis also different

.         Key Words:Air quality Factors affecting The panel model.
  

  目录

  摘要  
  绪论  
  0.1选题背景与研究意义  
  0.1.1选题背景  
  0.1.2研究意义  
  0.2研究内容与研究方法  
  0.2.1  
  研究内容  
  0.2.2研究方法  
  1 中国城市空气质量概念界定及其影响因素分析  
  1.1中国城市空气质量的界定  
  1.1.1空气质量指数  
  1.1.2中国城市空气质量指标的选取  
  1.2中国城市空气质量的影响因素分析  
  1.2.1变量指标的选取  
  1.2.2影响空气质量的因素概述  
  2 中国城市空气质量及影响因素的统计分析  
  2.1中国城市空气质量的时空特征  
  2.1.1中国城市空气质量的时间特征  
  2.1.2中国城市空气质量的空间特征  
  2.2中国城市空气质量影响因素的现状分析  
  3 模型理论基础  
  4 中国城市空气质量影响因素的计量分析  
  4.1变量选取及数据来源  
  4.2模型的检验及估计  
  5 分析结论与政策建议  
  5.1分析结论  
  5.2政策建议  
  5.2.1增加城市绿地面积,优化城市空气质量  
  5.2.2优化废气治理投资,提高能源利用效率  
  5.2.3转变经济发展方式,改善产业结构  
  参考文献

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